- 東京音韻論研究会 (TCP)
- 関西音韻論研究会 (PAIK)
- 対照言語学の観点から見た日本語の音声と文法 (音声研究班 「語のプロソディーと文のプロソディー」)
リーダー : 窪薗 晴夫 (国立国語研究所 理論・対照研究領域 教授)
- 2021年3月8日 (月) 13:00～17:40
2021年3月9日 (火) 13:00～16:55
- Web開催 (Zoom)
プログラムは PAIK のウェブサイトにてご確認いただけます。
2021年3月8日 (月) 15:30～17:40
15:30～16:00 "On the distinctive phonetic feature of word prosody in Kagoshima Japanese" KUBOZONO Haruo (NINJAL)
It is generally agreed in the literature that pitch fall is the distinctive phonetic feature of word accent in the multi-pattern accent system of Tokyo Japanese. In contrast, it remains unclear which pitch feature serves as a distinctive cue in many other Japanese dialects although this bears crucially on the fundamental question of what is stored in the native speakers’ mental lexicon and what is ‘unaccented’ words. The two-pattern accent system of Kagoshima Japanese is not an exception in this regard where its two accent types, Type A and Type B, may contrast in terms of (a) pitch fall, (b) pitch rise, or (c) the position of the high tone. Traditional analyses posit either (b) or (c) as the distinctive feature, thereby assuming that the Types A and B have a high tone on the penultimate syllable and the final syllable, respectively. This talk argues against this analysis and claims that pitch fall is the distinctive phonetic feature in this system just as in Tokyo Japanese. Main evidence comes from the following phenomena: (i) pitch patterns of monosyllabic words, (ii) the intonational process of downstep, (iii) accent changes in progress in the dialect, and (iv) phonetic variations of the two accent patterns in various phonological/phonetic contexts.
16:00～16:30 "A cross-linguistic study of long-distance effects on the VOT variation of stops: Korean and English" Mira Oh (Chonnam National University), Hijo Kang (Chosun University)
Avoidance of similarity (e.g., OCP) and its relevance has been an important focus in the phonological literature, in particular, to account for phonotactic constraints against identical phonemes occurring within a certain phonological domain. This study investigates the phonetic motivation of phonological OCP, questioning whether two non-adjacent identical or similar consonants affect each other’s phonetic realizations. This study will provide the results from two production experiments examining the duration modulation of C1VC2V-sequences in Korean and English. In Korean, VOT of a word-initial aspirated stop is shortened when the next syllable begins in an aspirated stop or tense stop to the exclusion of a lenis stop. English stops exhibit a similar pattern to Korean stops in that VOT of a word-initial voiceless stop is shorter when the next syllable begins in a voiceless stop. In both languages, the duration of C1 VOT is negatively correlated with those of V1, V1+Closure Duration, and V1+Closure Duration+C2 VOT. The presentation concludes with a discussion of possible reasons for such a long-distance effect on VOT modulation.
16:40～17:10 "A quantitative study of the syntax-prosody interface in two varieties of Korean" Seunghun J. Lee (International Christian University / University of Venda), Woonho CHOI (Mokpo National University)
Prosodic characteristics between Southwest Korean and Standard Korean are compared in this presentation. We focus on two sentence types: (a) type 1: the subject is modified by a relative clause (as in [[[relative clause] [N]NP]DP [[V]VP]TP]CP), and (b) type 2: a locative phrase precedes the subject noun (as in [[N-locative]LocP [N]NP [[V]VP]TP]CP). On the surface, both sentence types have three prosodic words, but their prosodic realization differs. The prosody of type 1 sentences displays prominence on the relative modifier, while the type 2 sentences show the prominence on the subject noun. The prosodic grouping of type 1 sentences is ι((ώ ω) ω)ι while type 2 groups the prosodic constituents as ι(ω (ώ ω))ι. Two major goals of this presentation are as follows; the asymmetry between the prosodic structure of type 1 and the prosodic structure of type 2 suggests that prosody cannot be completely independent of the morphosyntactic structure. We also report quantitative results of measurements obtained from the local maxima of prosodic words to discuss prosodic differences in these two varieties of Korean.
17:10-17:40 "How tight is the link between alternations and phonotactics in Korean?" Jongho Jun, Hanyoung Byun, Seon Park, Yoona Yee (Seoul National University)
It has been argued in the traditional phonological literature that there are two types of links between alternations and phonotactics: match and mismatch. Some phonological alternations apply to abide by phonotactic restrictions, whereas alternation processes with morphologically derived environment effects (MDEE) apply to the cross-morphemic occurrence of sequences which are well attested within a morpheme. As has been recently argued by Chong (2019), the link between alternations and phonotactics is more complicated than previously known. For instance, as phonotactic well-formedness can be gradient rather than categorical, it is possible that target sequences of a process with MDEE are not entirely phonotactically well-formed.
To explore the link between alternations and phonotactics, we focus on three processes in Korean which may apply only in the combination of morphemes: palatalization, vowel harmony and compound tensing. In order to find out the extent to which these processes are supported by their corresponding phonotactics, we conduct a human behavioral experiment by collecting Korean speakers’ non-word acceptability judgements. Furthermore, we conduct a computational modelling of Korean speakers’ phonotactic grammar to examine whether the non-word acceptability judgements can be projected from the Korean lexicon.
The results of the present study show that not all alternation processes match well with the relevant phonotactics. However, acceptability ratings by Korean speakers show a high correlation with the predicted ratings from the learned grammar, if the lexicon employed consists of both native and Sino-Korean words. This suggests that Korean speakers’ phonotactic knowledge is indeed projected from the lexicon.